By leveraging the basic principles and concepts to understand fluid dynamics that was learned in Hydraulic I, this lecture provides important concept and solutions (equations) to understand flow dynamics in conduit and open channel, which can be can be applied for designing such water infrastructure. On the basis of the laws of conservation of momentum and energy, the first half of this lecture explains fundamental concepts to understand friction and resistance in laminar and turbulent flow, and then the second half introduces the important equations to describe steady flow of conduit, and steady and unsteady flow of open channel.
This lecture aims to deepen the understanding of the basic principles and fundamental phenomenon of water flow, and to understand the dymanic and complex flow dynamics. Such understanding will help students obtain a foundation of design techniques required for flood control, water use, and environmental management.
By the end of this course, students will be able to:
1. Expalin principles and mathmatical frameworks of friction, resistance, and energy loss in laminar and turbulence flow.
2. Apply fundamental concepts and principles in fluid dynamics to various hydraulic phenomena in conduit and open channel.
3. Expalin physical mechanisms and one demesional mathmatical framework of fluid dynamics in the conduit and open channel.
Laminar and turbulent flow, friction and resistance, energy loss, uniform flow, steady flow of conduit, gradually varied flow of open channel, unsteady flow of open channel
✔ Specialist skills | Intercultural skills | Communication skills | Critical thinking skills | ✔ Practical and/or problem-solving skills |
Students are required to work on exercises and report about key topics covered in the lecture, and expected to do preparation and review for each class.
Course schedule | Required learning | |
---|---|---|
Class 1 | Guidance Hydraulics and water-related infrastructure, the relationship between the Hydraulic I and Hydrological Experiment | Understand water-related infrastructure and the role of hydraulics in water environment management, and the relationship between Hydraulics I and hydrological experiment |
Class 2 | Laminar flow and turbulent flow (1) Reynolds number, laminar flow and turbulent flow | Understand the flow of the viscous fluid with Reynolds number (Textbook Chapter 5) |
Class 3 | Laminar flow and turbulent flow (2) Turbulence, Reynolds stress and flow velocity distribution | Understand the characteristics of the turbulent flow, Reynolds number, Reynolds stress, and Navier- Stokes equation (Textbook Chapter 5) |
Class 4 | Resistance acting on objects in flow Momentum conservation law, energy conservation law | Understand the various types of resistance to work in a fluid by using momentum and energy conservation laws |
Class 5 | Steady flow of the pipe (1) Basic equations, friction loss (laminar flow ) | Understand conduit flow using one-dimensional equation, and derive equations for friction loss in laminar flow (Textbook Chapter 9) |
Class 6 | Steady flow of the pipe (2) Friction loss (turbulence), Moody chart | Derive equations for friction losses in turbulent flow of conduit, and understand Moody chart (Textbook Chapter 9) |
Class 7 | Intermediate test and review | Check comprehension in the first half of this lecture and review of the contents |
Class 8 | Uniform flow of open channel Equations for average flow rate, friction loss, uniform flow depth | Understood uniform flow of open channel by leaning equations for average flow rate, friction loss, and uniform flow depth (Textbook Chapter 7) |
Class 9 | Rapidly varied flow of open channel (1) Specific energy, subcritical and supercritical flow, critical depth | Understand rapidly varied flow of open channel by using specific energy, subcritical and supercritical flow, and critical depth (Textbook Chapter 6) |
Class 10 | Rapidly varied flow of open channel (2) Energy conservation law, shifting water depth, control section | Understand rapidly varied flow of open channel from the viewpoint of conservation of energy (Textbook Chapter 6) |
Class 11 | Rapidly varied flow of open channel (3) Energy conservation law, shifting water depth, control section | Understand rapidly varied flow (e.g., hydraulic jump) of open channel from the viewpoint of momentum conservation law, conjugate depth, and energy loss (Textbook Chapter 6) |
Class 12 | Gradually varied flow of open channel (1) Major surface type of open channel (steep and gentle slopes) | Derive equations for describing open channel water surface profile in steep and low-gradient (Textbook Chapter 8) |
Class 13 | Gradually varied flow of open channel (2) Major surface type of open channel (steep and gentle slopes) | Derive equations for describing open channel water surface profile in steep and low-gradient (Textbook Chapter 8) |
Class 14 | Unsteady flow of open channel Momentum equation, continuity equation, wave of open channel, bore | Understood unsteady flow (wave and bore) using conservation laws and continuous equation (Textbook Chapter 10) |
To enhance effective learning, students are encouraged to spend approximately 100 minutes preparing for class and another 100 minutes reviewing class content afterwards (including assignments) for each class.
They should do so by referring to textbooks and other course material.
Hino Mikio, Hydraulics "Meikai Suirigaku", Maruzen (1983/01), ISBN-13: 978-4621027783 (Japanese)
Ikeda Shunsuke, Hydraulics "Shoujutu Suirigaku", Gihodo (1999/01), ISBN-13: 978-4765515993 (Japanese)
Attendance 10% , reports 10 percent , mid-term exam 40% , final exam 40%
None (It is desirable for students to finish Hydraulics I in advance.)