The cytoplasm is a place where cells transduce signals to respond to various extracellular stimuli such as growth factors and hormones. It is also a place where a variety of organelles play their roles. The organelles do not work independently but they continuously interact with one another by transporting various molecules. The cytoskeleton is essentially involved in the transport of molecules, as well as in higher cellular events such as cell migration and apoptosis. This course will provide a comprehensive overview of signal transduction, cytoskeleton, organellar structures and functions, protein transport between organelles. Molecular fundamentals as well as physiological and pathological aspects will also be discussed.
This course aims to provide universal view and insights into the cellular structure and function.
By the end of this course, students will be able to:
1. Discuss individual cellular events with a universal view on the total cellular system.
Signal transduction, organelle, proteolysis, membrane traffic, cytoskeleton
|✔ Specialist skills||Intercultural skills||Communication skills||✔ Critical thinking skills||Practical and/or problem-solving skills|
In the first 10 min of each lecture, a summary of the previous lecture is given as necessary, followed by the main points of the day's lecture. In the last 15 min of each lecture, a quiz may be given to find out students' understandings. To support Japanese students' understandings, brief explanation may be given in Japanese as necessary.
|Course schedule||Required learning|
|Class 1||Signal transduction (1)||Students must be able to explain the major signal transduction pathways by which growth factor-activated receptor tyrosine kinases induce cellular responses.|
|Class 2||Signal transduction (2)||Students must be able to explain the signal transduction pathways by which G protein-coupled receptors induce cellular responses.|
|Class 3||Cytoskeleton and cell motility||Students must be able to explain the major functions of cytoskeleton as well as the cell motility.|
|Class 4||Motor proteins||Students must be able to explain the major functions of motor proteins.|
|Class 5||Actin filament and cell motility||Students must be able to explain the major functions of actin filament as well as the cell motility.|
|Class 6||Microtubule||Students must be able to explain the major functions of microtubules.|
|Class 7||Overview of organelles in eukaryotic cells||Students must be able to explain the primary functions of all organelles in eukaryotic cells.|
|Class 8||The specialized form of organelles in differentiated cells||Students must be able to explain structure-function relationships of the specialized form of organelles in the differentiated cells, such as muscles.|
|Class 9||Basics of membrane traffic||Students must be able to explain the basic mechanisms by which proteins are transported between different organelles or to the extracellular space.|
|Class 10||Membrane traffic between the ER and Golgi; from the Golgi to lysosomes||Students must be able to explain the process of protein transport between the ER and Golgi as well as from the Golig to lysosomes.|
|Class 11||Endocytosis and exocytosis||Students must be able to explain the process by which extracellular materials are incorporated into cells and delivered to the lysosome; proteins are secreted to the extracellular space.|
|Class 12||Autophagy||Students must be able to explain the roles and molecular mechanisms of autophagy, which delivers cytoplasmic proteins, organelles, and cytoplasmic pathgens to the lysosome.|
|Class 13||Organelle inheritance||Students must be able to explain the molecular mechanisms of cell cycle-dependent morphological changes of organelles in mammalian cells.|
|Class 14||Methods in cell biology||Students must be able to explain the several methods for analyzing the biological processes in the cell.|
To enhance effective learning, students are encouraged to spend approximately 100 minutes preparing for class and another 100 minutes reviewing class content afterwards (including assignments) for each class.
They should do so by referring to textbooks and other course material.
Reference books: Molecular Biology of the Cell (Alberts et al., Garland Science), Molecular Cell Biology (Rodish et al., W H Freeman & Co). Handouts will be distributed at the beginning of class when necessary.
Based on two reports, whether students achieved the above outcomes is assessed.