Cells are composed of many kinds of biological molecules which mediate a variety of cellular activities. To enable the synthesis of the biological molecules as well as the cellular activities, animal cells synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by digesting glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, and utilize the energy generated by ATP hydrolysis. This course will provide a comprehensive overview of energy metabolism (i.e., how cells synthesize ATP). Topics covered in this course include the following: glucose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, diseases caused by impaired energy metabolism, and regulation of energy metabolism. Mechanisms of homeostasis at a level of multicellular organisms will also be discussed.
This course aims at understanding the principle of energy production which is essential for all the biological activities.
Biochemistry II is designed to be taken with Biochemistry I and Molecular Biology I and II. Students are advised to enroll in all four courses in order to receive optimal instruction.
By the end of this course, students will be able to:
1. Explain how cells synthesize ATP by metabolizing glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids.
2. Explain how energy metabolism is regulated depending on the conditions of each cell and organism.
3. Explain the roles of hormones and metabolites in homeostasis.
Metabolism, Energy metabolism, Glucose metabolism, Amino acid metabolism, Nucleotide metabolism, Lipid metabolism, Homeostasis, Hormone
|✔ Specialist skills||Intercultural skills||Communication skills||✔ Critical thinking skills||Practical and/or problem-solving skills|
In the first 10 min of each lecture, a summary of the previous lecture is given as necessary, followed by the main points of the day's lecture. In the last 15 min of each lecture, a quiz may be given to find out if students have learned the material given.
|Course schedule||Required learning|
|Class 1||Glucose metabolism I: Glycolysis, fermentation||Students must be able to explain how glucose is oxidized to pyruvic acid.|
|Class 2||Glucose metabolism II: Glyconeogenesis, glycogen metabolism.||Students must be able to explain how glucose is synthesized from pyruvic acid.|
|Class 3||Citric acid cycle, alternative pathways.||Students must be able to explain how pyruvic acid is catabolized in the presence of oxygen.|
|Class 4||Respiratory chain, electron transfer system, oxidative phisphorylation.||Students must be able to explain how ATP is synthesized in the respiratory chain.|
|Class 5||Nucleotide metabolism.||Students must be able to explain how nucleotides are synthesized and catabolized.|
|Class 6||Amino acid metabolism I: Catabolism and regulation of amino acids.||Students must be able to explain how amino acids are catabolized.|
|Class 7||Amino acid metabolism II. Biosynthesis of amino acids||Students must be able to explain how amino acids are synthesized.|
|Class 8||Review of classes 1 - 7, and midterm exam.||Students must be able to explain what they learned in classes 1 - 7.|
|Class 9||Lipid metabolism I: β-oxidation of fatty acids.||Students must be able to explain how fatty acids are oxidized.|
|Class 10||Lipid metabolism II: Byiosynthesis of fatty acids.||Students must be able to explain how fatty acids are synthesized.|
|Class 11||Lipid metabolism III. Digestion, absorption, and transort of lipids.||Students must be able to explain how lipids are digested , absorpted, and transported in mammals.|
|Class 12||Regulation of metabolic reactions.||Students must be able to explain how metabolites regulate metabolic flux.|
|Class 13||Regulation of glucose metabolism.||Students must be able to explain how glucose metabolism is regulated depending on the energy levels.|
|Class 14||Signaling molecules, hormones, and homeostasis.||Students must be able to explain the roles of metabolites in the regulation of cellular functions , and the role of hormones in the endocrine system.|
|Class 15||Review of classes 9 - 14, and term-end exam.||Students must be able to explain what they learned in classes 9 - 14.|
Biochemistry, 4th edition (Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet, Tokyo Kagaku Dojin)
Molecular Biology of the Cell, 5th edition (Bruce Alberts et al., Newton Press), Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd edition (Elliott & Elliott); Handouts will be distributed at the beginning of class when necessary.
Midterm exam: 50%, term-end exam: 50%
Students must have successfully completed Biochemistry I, Molecular Biology I, and Molecular Biology II, or have equivalent knowledge.