Cells are composed of many kinds of biological molecules which mediate a variety of cellular activities. To enable the synthesis of the biological molecules as well as the cellular activities, animal cells synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by digesting glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, and utilize the energy generated by ATP hydrolysis. This course will provide a comprehensive overview of energy metabolism (i.e., how cells synthesize ATP). Topics covered in this course include the following: glucose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, diseases caused by impaired energy metabolism, and regulation of energy metabolism. Mechanisms of homeostasis at a level of multicellular organisms will also be discussed.
This course aims at understanding the principle of energy production which is essential for all the biological activities.
Biochemistry II is designed to be taken with Biochemistry I and Molecular Biology I and II. Students are advised to enroll in all four courses in order to receive optimal instruction.
By the end of this course, students will be able to:
1. Explain how cells synthesize ATP by metabolizing glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids.
2. Explain how energy metabolism is regulated depending on the conditions of each cell and organism.
3. Explain the roles of hormones and metabolites in homeostasis.
Metabolism, Energy metabolism, Glucose metabolism, Homeostasis, Hormone
|✔ Specialist skills||Intercultural skills||Communication skills||✔ Critical thinking skills||Practical and/or problem-solving skills|
In the first 10 min of each lecture, a summary of the previous lecture is given as necessary, followed by the main points of the day's lecture. In the last 15 min of each lecture, a quiz may be given to find out if students have learned the material given.
|Course schedule||Required learning|
|Class 1||Principle of energy metabolism in the cell.||Students must be able to explain how ATP, which is used as an energy source for various cellular activities, is synthesized by digestion of molecules in foods.|
|Class 2||Glucose metabolism 1: glycogen metabolism, glycolysis, glyconeogenesis.||Students must be able to explain how glycogen and glucose are digested to pyruvic acid and how glucose is synthesized from pyruvic acid in the cell.|
|Class 3||Glucose metabolism 2: fermentation, citric acid cycle, alternative pathways.||Students must be able to explain how pyruvic acid, produced by glycolysis, is metabolized in the presence and absence of oxygen.|
|Class 4||Respiratory chain, electron transfer system, oxidative phisphorylation.||Students must be able to explain how ATP is synthesized in the respiratory chain (electron transfer system and oxidative phosphorylation) in mitochondria.|
|Class 5||Review of classes 1~4, and midterm exam #1.||Students must be able to explain what they learned in classes 1~4.|
|Class 6||Principle of the regulation of energy metabolism.||Students must be able to explain the molecular basis and significance of the regulation of energy metabolism.|
|Class 7||Regulation of glucose metabolism.||Students must be able to explain how glucose metabolism is regulated depending on the conditions of each cell and organism.|
|Class 8||Lipid metabolism.||Students must be able to explain how fatty acids are metabolized for ATP synthesis and how it is regulated.|
|Class 9||Amino acid metabolism.||Students must be able to explain how amino acids are metabolized for ATP synthesis and how it is regulated.|
|Class 10||Review of classes 6~9, and midterm exam #2.||Students must be able to explain what they learned in classes 6~9.|
|Class 11||Nucleotide metabolism.||Students must be able to explain how nucleotides are synthesized and metabolized in the cell.|
|Class 12||Mechanism of homeostasis and related diseases.||Students must be able to explain the mechanisms and significance of homeostasis, as well as how its impairment causes diseases.|
|Class 13||Hormones.||Students must be able to explain the role of hormones in the endocrine system.|
|Class 14||Metabolites as signaling molecules.||Students must be able to explain the roles of metabolites in the regulation of cellular functions and homeostasis.|
|Class 15||Review of classes 11-14, and term-end exam.||Students must be able to explain what they learned in classes 11~14.|
Biochemistry, 4th edition (Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet, Tokyo Kagaku Dojin)
Molecular Biology of the Cell, 5th edition (Bruce Alberts et al., Newton Press), Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd edition (Elliott & Elliott); Handouts will be distributed at the beginning of class when necessary.
Midterm exam #1: 33%, midterm exam #2: 33%, term-end exam: 34%
Students must have successfully completed Biochemistry I, Molecular Biology I, and Molecular Biology II, or have equivalent knowledge.