2022 Automata and Formal Languages

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Academic unit or major
Undergraduate major in Computer Science
Kaneko Haruhiko 
Class Format
Lecture    (HyFlex)
Media-enhanced courses
Day/Period(Room No.)
Tue5-6(S222)  Fri5-6(S222)  
Course number
Academic year
Offered quarter
Syllabus updated
Lecture notes updated
Language used
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Course description and aims

This course covers fundamentals of programming/natural language processings, and focuses on phrase structure grammar, regular expression, finite automaton, pushdown automaton, and properties of formal languages.
The aim of this course is to understand fundamental theories of language processing by learning formal languages from the viewpoints of language generation and analysis methods.

Student learning outcomes

At the end of this course, students will be able to:
1) Have an understanding of definitions and properties of regular and context-free languages.
2) Have an understanding of regular and context-free grammars, and solve related problems such as conversion to normal form.
3) Have an understanding of deterministic/non-deterministic finite automata, and solve related problems such as generating an automaton for a given grammar.
4) Have an understanding of definition of pushdown automaton, and solve problems of related algorithms.


phrase structure grammar, regular language, context-free language, regular grammar, context-free grammar, regular expression, finite automaton, pushdown automaton, pumping lemma

Competencies that will be developed

Specialist skills Intercultural skills Communication skills Critical thinking skills Practical and/or problem-solving skills

Class flow

1) At the beginning of each class, the previous class is reviewed, and solutions to exercise problems are given.
2) Exercise problems of the day are given towards the end of class (around 30 min).

Course schedule/Required learning

  Course schedule Required learning
Class 1 introduction, phrase structure grammar formal language, phrase structure grammar, derivation of sentence
Class 2 regular grammar regular grammar, regular language, union/concatenation/Kleene-closure of regular languages, elimination of ε-production
Class 3 finite automaton formal definition of automaton, state transition diagram, deterministic finite automaton (DFA), nondeterministic finite automaton (NFA)
Class 4 regular grammar and finite automaton conversion from NFA to DFA, derivation of regular grammar from NFA
Class 5 automaton with ε-transition automaton with ε-transition, elimination of ε-transitions, NFA for union, complement, intersection, concatenation, and Kleene-closure
Class 6 minimization of deterministic finite automaton minimization algorithm of the number of DFA states, proof of minimality, proof of uniqueness
Class 7 pumping lemma of regular language pumping lemma of regular language, method to prove that a language is not regular
Class 8 conversion from regular expression to automaton, conversion from automaton to regular expression bottom-up method, top-down method, Kleene's method, method by solving recurrence equations
Class 9 review of regular language and finite automaton, and midterm exam review of regular language and finite automaton, and midterm exam
Class 10 context-free grammar (CFG) context-free grammar, context-free language, derivation tree, ambiguity, elimination of ε-productions
Class 11 Chomsky normal form Chomsky normal form (CNF), elimination of unit productions
Class 12 pumping lemma of context-free language (CFL), Ogden's lemma derivation tree for CNF, pumping lemma of context-free language, Ogden's lemma, method to prove that a given language is not CFL (by the pumping lemma and Ogden's lemma)
Class 13 nondeterministic pushdown automaton (NPDA), deterministic pushdown automaton (DPDA) nondeterministic pushdown automaton (formal definition, state-transition diagram, languages accepted), instantaneous description, deterministic pushdown automaton, deterministic context-free language (DCFL)
Class 14 equivalency of context-free language and pushdown automaton NPDA construction for given context-free grammar, languages accepted by empty stack, generation of context-free grammar for given NPDA

Out-of-Class Study Time (Preparation and Review)

To enhance effective learning, students are encouraged to spend approximately 100 minutes preparing for class and another 100 minutes reviewing class content afterwards (including assignments) for each class.
They should do so by referring to textbooks and other course material.


V. J. Rayward-Smith, A First Course in Formal Language Theory. Norwich UK: Blackwell Scientific Publishers. ISBN: 978-0077092450

Reference books, course materials, etc.

J. Hopcroft, R. Motowani, J. Ullman . Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation. London: Pearson. ISBN: 978-1292039053

Assessment criteria and methods

Students will be assessed on their understanding of this course, such as properties of formal languages, phrase structure grammar, and automata, and their ability to apply them to solve problems.
Students' course scores are based on exercise problems (40%), midterm exam (30%), and final exam (30%).

Related courses

  • GRE.C101 : Foundations of Computer Science I
  • GRE.C102 : Foundations of Computer Science II
  • CSC.T241 : Fundamentals of Computing
  • CSC.T372 : Compiler Construction
  • ART.T459 : Natural Language Processing

Prerequisites (i.e., required knowledge, skills, courses, etc.)

No prerequisites.


Course handouts will be uploaded to T2SCHOLA.

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