2023 Fundamentals of Electronic Materials

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Academic unit or major
Graduate major in Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Nakagawa Shigeki  Sugahara Satoshi 
Class Format
Lecture    (Face-to-face)
Media-enhanced courses
Day/Period(Room No.)
Mon7-8(S2-203(S222))  Thr7-8(S2-203(S222))  
Course number
Academic year
Offered quarter
Syllabus updated
Lecture notes updated
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Course description and aims

Properties of electrons in solids are the basis of all the electronic materials and electron devices. This course provides fundamental treatment to understand the electron's behaviors in solids based on the solid state physics.
Beginning with a brief review of fundamental quantum mechanics, some perturbation theories will be lectured to understand electron states in various potentials where the analytical solution of Schrodinger equation is hard to be obtained.
In order to treat electrons in solids, the electrons should be regarded as waves. We will see that carrier electrons can be treated as waves which propagate in the solids, and which cause scattering and diffraction. Furthermore, it is recognized that energy bands will be formed in a periodic potential of solids, which is the basis for carrier transport in metals and semiconductors.
  This course also covers band theories of solids based on nearly-free-electron approach with a periodic perturbation potential and more precise tight binding theory. The concepts of Brillouin zone, Bloch theorem, empty lattice approximation, and chemical bonds in solids are introduced as a basis for the band theories. Then, students will gain an understanding of the nearly-free-electron approach using the perturbation theory and the tight binding theory of solid. In particular, students learn the calculation methodology of the band structures of diamond and zinc-blend semiconductors.

Student learning outcomes

1. Understanding of fundamental quantum mechanics and some perturbation theories for various potentials where the analytical solution is hard to be obtained.
2. Treatment to regard carrier electrons as propagating waves, which cause scattering and diffraction.
Also, through the course, the students will be able to
3. understand the generation of band structures in a periodic lattice potential and the nearly-free-electron model of solids using the perturbation theory.
4. comprehend the concept and methodology of the tight binding theory.
5. understand the band structures of diamond and zinc-blend semiconductors.


Quantum mechanics, Perturbation theory, Solid state physics, periodic potential, Energy band, Bloch's wave, Band structure

Competencies that will be developed

Specialist skills Intercultural skills Communication skills Critical thinking skills Practical and/or problem-solving skills

Class flow

Exercises are carried out after every lecture in the class to help students understand.

Course schedule/Required learning

  Course schedule Required learning
Class 1 Review of quantum mechanics Basis of quantum mechanics, Schrodinger equation, properties of wave functions, operator, steady states, degenerate and non-degenerated states, vector representation of state, matrix representation of operators, Dirac notation, orthogonalization and unitary transformation.
Class 2 Time-independent perturbation theory - Non degenerated system- Time-independent perturbation theory for non-degenerated system.
Class 3 Time-independent perturbation theory and matrix elements Time-independent perturbation theory and relationship with matrix elements, Stark effect, etc.
Class 4 Time-independent perturbation theory - Degenerated system- Time-independent perturbation theory for degenerated system.
Class 5 Time-dependent perturbation theory Time-dependent perturbation theory for non-degenerated system. Transition of states and selection rule.
Class 6 Absorption and emission of light using time dependent perturbation theory Absorption and emission of light using time dependent perturbation theory. Transition probability, golden rule,
Class 7 Basis of waves in solid -propagation, scattering and diffraction- Basis to treat particles as waves in solid -propagation, scattering and diffraction-
Class 8 Free electron model of solids Hamiltonian for single electron approximation, Quantum well model of solids, Free electron model with periodic boundary condition
Class 9 Nearly free electron model of solids Lattice potential and energy gap generation, Nearly free electron model based on perturbation theory
Class 10 Bravais lattice, Reciprocal lattice, and Brillouin zone Bravais lattice and translation vector, Reciprocal lattice, Brillouin zone
Class 11 Bloch theorem and Empty lattice band Bloch theorem, Reduced zone, Empty lattice approximation
Class 12 Tight binding theory I Chemical bonds, Fundamentals of tight binding theory
Class 13 Tight binding theory II Tight binding theory of 2-dimensional lattices
Class 14 Band structures of semiconductors Tight binding theory of diamond and zinc-blend semiconductors, and the band structures of semiconductors

Out-of-Class Study Time (Preparation and Review)

To enhance effective learning, students are encouraged to spend approximately 100 minutes preparing for class and another 100 minutes reviewing class content afterwards (including assignments) for each class.
They should do so by referring to textbooks and other course material.


Course materials will be provided from T2SCHOLA

Reference books, course materials, etc.

Course materials will be provided from T2SCHOLA.
C.Kittel : "Introduction to Solid State Physics," John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
H.Ibach and H.Lute : "Solid-State Physics," Springer-Verlag
W.A.Harrison: "Electronic structure and the properties of solids: The Physics of the Chemical Bond ", Dover Publications.

Assessment criteria and methods

Evaluation will be based on the exercises done in classes and a term-end examination.

Related courses

  • EEE.D411 : Semiconductor Physics
  • EEE.D511 : Magnetic Property and Spin Dependent Phenomenon
  • EEE.D501 : Dielectirc Property and Organic Devices
  • EEE.D431 : Fundamentals of Light and Matter I
  • EEE.D531 : Fundamentals of Light and Matter IIa
  • EEE.D532 : Fundamentals of Light and Matter IIb
  • EEE.D533 : Fundamentals of Light and Matter IIc
  • EEE.D421 : Imaging Materials
  • EEE.D551 : Nano-Structure Devices

Prerequisites (i.e., required knowledge, skills, courses, etc.)

Knowledge of fundamentals on quantum mechanics.

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