First half: To learn the elements of mineralogy (crystal structure, chemical bond, pressure-induced phase transition, X-ray analysis, analysis of crystal structure)
Second half: To learn the elements of petrology (phase equilibrium in multicomponent and multiphase systems, melting phenomena, magmatism and variety of igneous rocks)
To learn about following contents regarding rocks and minerals making up Earth and Earth-type planets: 1. Introduction to mineralogy, 2. Basics of X-ray analysis, 3. Thermodynamic equilibrium in multicomponent systems, 4. Simple phase diagrams of solid solutions, 5. Pressure-induced phase transition and mantle rocks, 6. Phase relations for melting reaction, 7. Melting of mantle rocks and variety of magmas, 8. Fractional crystallization of magmas and crust formation, 9. Evolution of Earth's inside.
Mineral, Rock, Crystal structure, Phase transition, Melting
|✔ Specialist skills
|Critical thinking skills
|✔ Practical and/or problem-solving skills
Before coming to class, students should read the course schedule and prepare for the topics with handouts and references.
|Material science point of view
|To investigate main constituent materials of the Earth.
|Rock-forming mineralogy 1-Introduction
|To investigate the definition of mineral, crystal, amorphous, and paracrystal.
|Rock-forming mineralogy 2-The elements of crystal structure
|To investigate components determining crystal structure.
|Rock-forming mineralogy 3- Chemical bonds in solid
|To investigate the nature of chemical bondings.
|Rock-forming mineralogy 4- Pressure-induced phase transition and crystal structure
|Understanding the phase transition of minerals.
|Rock-forming mineralogy 5- Drill
|Review the contents of previous classes.
|Rock-forming mineralogy 6- Basics for X-ray analysis
|Understanding the methods of chemical analyses and crystal structure analyses by using X-ray.
|Rock-forming mineralogy 7- Summary of the first half and drill
|To analyze data of powder X-ray diffraction measurement.
|Rock as multicomponent and multiphase systems
|Understanding the fundamentals of the phase diagram
|Basalt and peridotite (phase diagram of binary eutectic system)
|Understanding how to read and use the phase diagram of the binary eutectic system.
|Variety of igneous rocks and petrogenesis (phase equilibrium in solid solution)
|Understanding how to read and use the phase diagram of solid solutions.
|Phase diagram in ternary eutectic system
|Understanding how to read and use the phase diagram in ternary eutectic systems.
|Role of H2O for rock melting (origin of granite)
|Understanding melting phase relations in water containing systems.
|Role of magma for Earth's history
|Understanding the role of magma during Earth's history.
|Summary of the second half and drill
|To solve the problems about phase diagrams in various systems learned previous classes.
Handouts will be provided during class
Reference books (in Japanese): 「地球惑星科学入門」（岩波講座第１巻）「地球惑星物質科学」（岩波講座第5巻）「地殻の形成」（岩波講座第8巻） 「地殻の形成」（岩波講座第8巻）「地球内部ダイナミクス」（岩波講座第１0巻） 物理化学（化学入門コース第2巻）関一彦（岩波書店） 「固体化学入門」A.R. West（講談社）
Students will take a short test to increase the depth of understanding of contents in the course, and finally take an end-of-term exam. Students' course scores are based on short exams (40%) and final exam (60%).