Hadrons are particles which interact with strong forces. Hadrons are grouped into baryons and mesons. Examples are proton, neutron and pion. Most of the visible mass in our universe is due to the hadron mass. In the lecture, it is explained that hadrons are composed of quarks and anti-quarks. The features of flavor and color charge are also explained. Explanation is given on the roles of gluons, the force carriers, based on Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) which is the theory of strong interaction. The coupling constant of the strong interaction and asymptotic freedom, which is the outstanding feature of QCD, are explained. Chiral symmetry and its dynamical breaking are explained in the context of the mass generation of hadron. Effective models based on chiral symmetry for hadron physics are explained.
The purpose of the course is to let the students understand hadrons which constitute the present universe, and to understand quarks, gluons, and QCD which is the theory of strong interaction. Another purpose is to let the students know theoretical tools to study hadron physics.
[Objectives] Students will understand the basics of hadron physics by taking this course. Students will understand the features of strong interaction, the description of hadrons based on quarks, and features of quantum chromodynamics.
[Topics] Strong interaction, symmetries in hadron physics, properties of hadron, quark model, quark flavors, generations, color charge, gluons, asymptotic freedom, elastic scattering and deep inelastic scattering, chiral effective theories, chiral symmetry, current algebra, hadron mass generation, etc.
strong interaction, quark model, flavor symmetry, chiral symmetry, baryons, mesons, color charge, gluons, quantum chromodynamics, asymptotic freedom, origin of mass, dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry, chiral anomaly, chiral effective theories.
The lecture is given using black board with prints summarizing each lecture.
Practical problems are given and students are required to solve them.
|第1回||Hadrons and strong interaction||Explain what hadrons are.|
|第2回||Symmetries in hadron physics||Explain the breaking patterns of symmetries in hadron physics.|
|第3回||Flavors of quarks, classification of baryons and mesons||Explain the compositions of baryons and mesons based on flavor symmetry.|
|第4回||Quark model||Construct the proton wavefunction based on the quark model.|
|第5回||Elastic scattering and form factors||To be able to explain elastic scattering based on non-relativistic and relativistic theory, and the form factors.|
|第6回||Deep inelastic scattering and structure functions||To be able to explain the meaning of Bjorken scaling.|
|第7回||Gluons, color charge, asymptotic freedom, quantum chromodynamics (QCD)||To be able to understand the meaning of asymptotic freedom.|
|第8回||Symmetry and conservation law||Drive the Noether current from a Lagangian.|
|第9回||Current algebra and PCAC||Explain what PCAC is.|
|第10回||Chiral Symmetry||Derive the Gell-Mann Oakes Renner relation.|
|第11回||Linear sigma model||Demonstrate the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in a hadron theory|
|第12回||Nambu Jona-Lasinio model||Explain the mechanism of quark mass generation.|
|第13回||Quantum anomaly and eta' meson||Explain why the eta' meson is so heavy.|
|第14回||Chiral perturbation theory||Explain the basic ideas of chiral perturbation theory.|
|第15回||Summary||Summarize the contents of this course.|
'Particles and Nuclei', B. Povh et al., Springer
'Elementary Particle Physics, volume 1 and 2', Y. Nagashima, WILEY-VCH,
'Quarks, Baryons and Chiral Symmetry', A. Hosaka and H. Toki, World Scientific
Written examination at the end of the course, and problem solving during the class
It is required that the students have enough knowledge on quantum physics.
The lecture will be given in English.