### 2020　Essence of Humanities and Social Sciences47: Decision Making D 1

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Humanities and social science courses
Instructor(s)
Inohara Takehiro
Course component(s)
Lecture
Mode of instruction
ZOOM
Day/Period(Room No.)
Wed1-2(Zoom)
Group
1
Course number
LAH.S440
Credits
1
2020
Offered quarter
3Q
Syllabus updated
2020/9/18
Lecture notes updated
2020/9/18
Language used
English
Access Index

### Course description and aims

[Important]
(Updated July 28th, 2020)
Because this year's classes are offered live via Zoom, there will be some changes to assessment criteria and methods, etc.
Details will be announced, as soon as it is decided, to the registered students by OCW-i emails.
Zoom Meeting ID and password you need to attend the classes will also be notified by OCW-i emails, at least two days before the first class.
Please check regularly your emails and the announcements list for this course in OCW-i.

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The theme of this course is “GMCR: Graph Model for Conflict Resolution.”

This course deals with fundamental concepts and analysis methods of the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR) through lectures, working on exercise problems, and group work. Specifically, this course treats the topics such as “Rationality Analysis,” “Coalition Analysis,” “Attitude Analysis,” “Efficiency Analysis　(Pareto Optimality) ,” “Prisoners’ Dilemma,” “Chicken Game,” “The Gift of the Magi; Tragedy of Commons,” and “Elmira Conflict.”

Taking decision making situations which involve two or more decision makers as objects, this course aims to cultivate the students’ abilities to: select an appropriate mathematical model for describing and analyzing an object; describe the object by a mathematical model; draw some insights from the results of analysis of the mathematical model; convey the analysis results to others concisely.

### Student learning outcomes

Upon completion of this course, taking decision making situations which involves two or more decision makers as objects, students should be able to:
1) State the definitions of mathematical models using examples of the objects described by the mathematical models;
2) Apply analysis methods to examples of the objects described by the mathematical models, and explain the analysis results to others;
3) Select an appropriate mathematical model and describe an object; and
4) Apply analysis methods to an object described by a mathematical model, and explain the analysis results to others.

### Keywords

Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR); Rationality Analysis; Coalition Analysis; Attitude Analysis; Efficiency Analysis　(Pareto Optimality); Stability; Equilibrium; Nash; GMR; SMR; SEQ; Movements; Improvements; Sanctions; Escape; Prisoners’ Dilemma; Chicken Game; The Gift of the Magi; Tragedy of Commons; Elmira Conflict

### Competencies that will be developed

 Specialist skills ✔ Intercultural skills ✔ Communication skills ✔ Critical thinking skills ✔ Practical and/or problem-solving skills

### Class flow

One class deals with one topic.

A lecture on the topic is presented, and the students work on exercise problems, first individually, second in pairs, then in groups of four, and finally with the class as a whole. At the end of the class, each student writes and submits a “summary report” on what he/she learned through individual observation, other students’ ideas, the　lecture, and exercise problems.

### Course schedule/Required learning

Course schedule Required learning
Class 1 Guidance; Self introduction; Mathematical Approaches; Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR); Rationality Analysis; Efficiency Analysis; Coalition Analysis; Attitude Analysis State at least three topics this course treats. Find at least three new colleagues.
Class 2 Notation; GMCR; Rationality Analysis (Movements; Improvements; Sanctions; Escape); Stability (Nash; GMR; SMR; SEQ); Equilibrium; Efficiency Analysis (Pareto Optimality) State a definition of graph models of conflicts. State the purposes of Rationality Analysis and Efficiency Analysis.
Class 3 Examples and Exercises (Prisoners’ Dilemma; Chicken Game; The Gift of the Magi) Give two examples of decision making situations which involves just two decision makers, express them as graph models of conflict, and analyze them by using the methods of Rationality Analysis and Efficiency Analysis.
Class 4 Coalition Analysis (Coalitional Behavior (Movements; Improvements; Sanctions; Escape); Stability; Equilibrium) State characteristics of Coalition Analysis and Efficiency Analysis.
Class 5 Examples and Exercises (Tragedy of Commons; Elmira Conflict) Give two examples of decision making situations which involves just three decision makers, express them as graph models of conflict, and analyze them by using the methods of Coalition Analysis and Efficiency Analysis.
Class 6 Attitude Analysis (Attitudes; Relational Behavior (Movements; Improvements; Sanctions; Escape); Stability; Equilibrium) State characteristics of Attitude Analysis and Efficiency Analysis.
Class 7 Examples and Exercises (Prisoners’ Dilemma; The Gift of the Magi; Tragedy of Commons; Elmira Conflict); Summary: Report Assignment and advanced topics (State Transition Analysis; Blocking Behavior; Avoidance Behavior; Preference Change; Attitude Change; Stability of Attitudes) Give two examples of decision making situations which involves two or three decision makers, express them as graph models of conflict, and analyze them by using the methods of Attitude Analysis and Efficiency Analysis. Give an example of decision making situations which involves at least three decision makers, express it as a graph model of conflict, and analyze it by using the methods of Rationality Analysis, Coalition Analysis, Attitude Analysis, and Efficiency Analysis.

### Out-of-Class Study Time (Preparation and Review)

To enhance effective learning, students are encouraged to spend approximately 100 minutes preparing for class and another 100 minutes reviewing class content afterwards (including assignments) for each class.
They should do so by referring to textbooks and other course material.

Not applicable.

### Reference books, course materials, etc.

1. T. Inohara, Relational dominant strategy equilibrium as a generalization of dominant strategy equilibrium in terms of a social psychological aspect of decision making, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol.182, No.2, pp.856-866, October, 2007.
2. T. Inohara, Relational Nash equilibrium and interrelationships among relational and rational equilibrium concepts, Applied Mathematics and Computation, Vol.199, No.2, pp.704-715, June, 2008.
3. T. Inohara and K. W. Hipel, Coalition analysis in the graph model for conflict resolution, Systems Engineering, Vol.11, No.4, 343-359, 2008.
4. T. Inohara and K. W. Hipel, Interrelationships among noncooperative and coalition stability concepts, Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering, Vol.17, No.1, pp.1-29, March, 2008.
5. T. Inohara, Keith W. Hipel, and S. Walker, Conflict analysis approaches for investigating attitudes and misperceptions in the War of 1812, Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering, Vol.16, No.2, pp.181-201, June, 2007.

Course materials are posted on OCW-i and/or provided during the classes.

### Assessment criteria and methods

Assessment will be based on “summary reports” written during each class (50% in total) and the final report (50%).

If you are absent from a class, regardless of the reason, points are subtracted from the evaluation portion of the "summary reports."
There are no make-up assignments.
Read the course materials posted on OCW-i to find out the content of the class you missed.

Details of the requirements of the two reports will be explained in the first class meeting.

### Related courses

• LAH.T108 ： Decision Making A
• LAH.T208 ： Decision Making B
• LAH.T307 ： Decision Making C
• LAH.S508 ： Essence of Humanities and Social Sciences39: Decision Making E
• SHS.M461 ： Graduate Methodologies in Cognition, Mathematics and Information S1

### Prerequisites (i.e., required knowledge, skills, courses, etc.)

Prospective students should have interests in analysis of decision making situations.

### Contact information (e-mail and phone)    Notice : Please replace from "[at]" to "@"(half-width character).

Prof. Takehiro Inohara, inostaff[at]shs.ens.titech.ac.jp

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[Important]
(Updated July 28th, 2020)
Because this year's classes are offered live via Zoom, there will be some changes to assessment criteria and methods, etc.
Details will be announced, as soon as it is decided, to the registered students by OCW-i emails.
Zoom Meeting ID and password you need to attend the classes will also be notified by OCW-i emails, at least two days before the first class.
Please check regularly your emails and the announcements list for this course in OCW-i.

### Other

This course consists of the content of science.