The course will cover the structure and dynamics of cellular components, and the basic technologies for studying cells, including cell isolation, cell culture, and light and electron microscopy. Topics will include the details of subcellular compartments and the mechanism of macromolecule traffic system, signal transduction, cell cycle, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. As an excellent molecular biology model, the life cycle of some viruses and bacteriophages will also be picked up.
The course aims to understand the basics of cell structure and function, which is essential for further learning of higher-order biological function and application for bioengineering.
Molecular Biology II is designed to be taken with Molecular Biology I and Biochemistry I and II. Students are advised to enroll in all four courses in order to receive optimal instruction.
By the end of this course, students will be able to:
1. explain the techniques for cell isolation, culture of useful cells such as stem cells, and cell manipulation for genetics and reverse-genetics, and the microscope technologies to observe cell structure and dynamics including light, fluorescence, and electron microscopes.
2. explain the mechanism of intracellular traffic, including cytoplasmic-nuclear transport, endoplasmic reticulum, trans-Golgi network, lysosome, endocytosis and exocytosis, and signal transduction, including ligand-receptor biding, second messenger, phosphorylation cascade.
3. explain the cell cycle and its regulation by Cdk-cyclin, checkpoint, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis.
4. explain the mechanism of apoptosis and carcinogenesis, such as the nature of cancer cells, oncogene, anti-oncogenes, and treatments.
5. explain the characterization and structure of viruses, and the life cycle of lambda phase and influenza virus.
cell culture, microscopy, membrane traffic, signal transduction, cell cycle, apoptosis, cancer, virus
|Intercultural skills||Communication skills||Specialist skills||Critical thinking skills||Practical and/or problem-solving skills|
When necessary, in the first 10-15 min of each lecture, a summary of the previous lecture is given, followed by the main points of the day's lecture. In the last 10-15 min of each lecture, a quiz may be given to find out if students have learned the material given.
|Course schedule||Required learning|
|Class 1||Cell research strategy||Students must be able to explain the techniques for cell isolation, the importance of culturing cells including stem cells, and genetic engineering technologies (Kimura; Wakabayashi)|
|Class 2||Microscopic observation of cells||Students must be able to understand the principle and application of cell observation techniques based on light and electron microscopy, such as phase-contrast, DIC, fluorescence, confocal, and TIRF (Kimura; Wakabayashi)|
|Class 3||Cell compartment and traffic: cell compartmentalization, nuclear-cytoplasmic transport, and mitochondria||Students must be able to explain the cell compartmentalization, nuclear-cytoplasmic transport, and mitochondria (Kimura; Wakabayashi)|
|Class 4||Cell compartment and traffic: protein secretion pathway||Students must be able to explain signal peptides and protein secretion pathway through endoplasmic reticulum (Kimura; Wakabayashi)|
|Class 5||Cell compartment and traffic: other transport systems||Students must be able to explain trans-Golgi network, lysosome, exocytosis, and endocytosis (Kimura; Wakabayashi)|
|Class 6||Signal transduction: basics of intracellular signaling||Students must be able to explain the basic molecular mechanism of intracellular signaling (Ito; Imamura)|
|Class 7||Signal transduction: GTP binding protein-coupled receptor and the second messengers||Students must be able to explain GTP-binding protein-coupled receptor pathway and the second messenger (Ito; Imamura)|
|Class 8||Signal transduction: enzyme-linked receptor and MAP kinase pathways||Students must be able to explain GTP-binding protein-coupled receptor pathway and the second messenger (Ito; Imamura)|
|Class 9||Cell cycle: the basics and regulation||Students must be able to explain the character of each phase of cell cycle, and the regulatory mechanism by Cdk-cyclin (Ito; Imamura)|
|Class 10||Cell cycle: mitosis and cytokinesis||Students must be able to explain the molecular mechanism of mitosis, cytokinesis, and checkpoint (Ito; Imamura)|
|Class 11||Apoptosis||Students must be able to explain the character, mechanism, and biological role of apoptosis (Aizawa; Kondo)|
|Class 12||Cancer: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes||Students must be able to explain how oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes contribute to tumorigenesis (Aizawa; Kondo)|
|Class 13||Cancer: detection and clinical treatment||Students must be able to explain the characters of cancer cells, and the current situation of cancer treatment (Aizawa; Kondo)|
|Class 14||Viruses: the type and structure of viruses, and the life cycle of lambda phage||Students must be able to explain the types and typical structure of viruses, and the life cycle of lambda phage (Aizawa; Kondo)|
|Class 15||Viruses: life cycle of various viruses||Students must be able to explain the life cycle of influenza and other viruses (Aizawa; Kondo)|
Molecular Biology of the Cell, 5th Edition (Bruce Alberts et al., Garland Science); Biochemistry, 4th Edition (Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet, Wiley)
Students will be assessed on their ability to describe the molecular biology of the cell given in the course and to utilize the knowledge for problem solving, and students' course scores are based on final examination.
No prerequisites are necessary, but enrollment in Biochemistry I and Molecular Biology I is desirable.