This laboratory consists of three of four themes including those in Laboratory II; Theme A: X-ray diffraction and D: Conductive polymers.
This laboratory is a prerequisite class for students majoring polymer science to obtain necessary experimental skills. The aims are to enable the students to understand the crystalline structure, phase separation, solution- and gel properties, and fundamental electrical properties of polymers together with obtaining skills for polymer property analyses such as X-ray diffraction and so on.
It is also aimed for students to learn how to summarize a research report and present the analysis results and discussion as an oral presentation.
Students will learn to do the followings
Theme A: 1) Have an understanding of the basic elements of X-ray diffraction, and measure diffraction patterns using a powder X-ray diffractometer.
2) Analyze diffraction patterns of simple crystal systems (i.e., the cubic and hexagonal systems).
3) Determine crystallite size and crystallinity for polymer crystals.
Theme D: １）Have an understanding of the basic principle of conductivity of conjugated polymers and measure conductance using the electrochemical analyzer.
２）Have an understanding of the mechanism of electrochemical polymerization, and explain the relationship between the reaction conditions and conductivity of obtained films.
３）Have an understanding of the structure of the conjugated polymer, and explain the mechanism of solvatochromism and thermochromism.
X-ray diffraction, Crystal lattices, Miller indices, Structure factor, Crystallinity, Crystallite size, Conjugated polymer, Conductivity, Electrochemical polymerization, Solvato- and thermochromism
|✔ Specialist skills||Intercultural skills||✔ Communication skills||✔ Critical thinking skills||✔ Practical and/or problem-solving skills|
This laboratory course consists of three parts; 1st (Class 1 for guidance), 2nd (Class 2-8 for the first theme), 3rd (Class 9-15 for the second theme). Students are divided into three groups; one half is for theme A, the other one half for theme D. Students who start with theme A will be grouped into theme D for the second theme, and vice versa. The course schedule below is for the former case. Students will be grouped into theme B and C in the laboratory II, so all the students will conduct all the themes A - D.
|Course schedule||Required learning|
|Class 1||Guidances on the whole course and the respective themes||Understanding the course aims and the theoretical backgrounds of the respective themes.|
|Class 2||Theme A: Measurements of cubic structure crystals||To measure the X-ray diffraction pattern of cubic structure crystals.|
|Class 3||Theme A: Crystal Structure Determination (I) Cubic structures||To index the X-ray diffraction pattern and calculate the lattice parameters of materials with a cubic structure.|
|Class 4||Theme A: Measurements of hexagonal structure crystals / Crystal Structure Determination (II) Hexagonal structures||To index the X-ray diffraction pattern and calculate the lattice parameters of materials with a hexagonal structure.|
|Class 5||Theme A: Identification of an unknown specimen / Precise lattice parameter measurements||To identify an unknown specimen by X-ray diffraction procedures. / To determine the precise lattice parameters of materials by X-ray diffraction methods.|
|Class 6||Theme A: X-ray diffraction of polymer crystals||To measure the X-ray diffraction pattern of polymer crystals.|
|Class 7||Theme A: Determination of crystallite size and crystallinity of polymer crystals||To determine the average crystallite size and crystallinity of polymer crystals by X-ray diffraction pattern analysis.|
|Class 8||Theme A: Data reduction/Oral examination||To organize the diffraction data and show the analysis results / Oral examination for evaluation of students' achievement.|
|Class 9||Theme D:Synthesis and electronic property of conjugated polymer: Electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole||Syntheize polypyrrole via electrochemical polymerization under certain conditions|
|Class 10||Theme D:Measurement of conductivity||Analyze the conductivity of obtained polymer|
|Class 11||Theme D: Electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole and measurement of conductivity||Synthesize polypyrrole with different conditions, and analyze conductivity. Synthesize de-doped polypyrrole|
|Class 12||Theme D: Oxidative polymerization of decylthiophene and analysis of its structure||Synthesize polythiophene via oxidative polymerization. Characterize thiophene monomer by H NMR and IR spectroscopy.|
|Class 13||Theme D: Purification of polydecylthiophene||Collect the polymer, and have an understanding of the polymerization mechanism.|
|Class 14||Theme D: Observation of solvato- and thermochromism of polydecylthiophene||Measure the UV–vis spectra of polymer, and observe the solvato- and thermo-chromism.|
|Class 15||Theme D: Oral presentation||Have an oral presentation about the structure and electronic property of conjugated polymer to check the understanding level.|
To enhance effective learning, students are encouraged to spend approximately 50 minutes preparing for class and another 50 minutes reviewing class content afterwards (including assignments) for each class.
They should do so by referring to textbooks and other course material.
Textbook for Polymer Chemistry Laboratory I & II
Assessment on the reports and the oral presentations or examination.
Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry Laboratory I～III