2021 Fundamentals of Single Crystal and Thin Film Processing

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Academic unit or major
Undergraduate major in Materials Science and Engineering
Funakubo Hiroshi  Isobe Toshihiro 
Course component(s)
Lecture    (ZOOM)
Day/Period(Room No.)
Mon1-2(W833)  Thr1-2(W833)  
Course number
Academic year
Offered quarter
Syllabus updated
Lecture notes updated
Language used
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Course description and aims

This course will provide the basic knowledge of the oxide thin film deposition and the oxide single crystal growth. In the thin film deposition, the deposition methods through gas phase and the characterization method of the thin film will be explained. In the latter parts, the basic theory of the single crystal growth and various single crystal growth methods will be explained. Moreover, crystal defects will be explained.

Student learning outcomes

At the end of this course, students will be able to:
1) Have the basic understanding of the thin film deposition process through vapor phase.
2) Have the understandings of the thin film deposition by PVD process and CVD process.
3) Have the brief knowledge of the characterization method for the thin film.
4) Have the basic understanding of the bulk crystal growth process through liquid phase.
5) Have the understandings of various bulk crystal growth methods.
6) Have the understanding of crystal defects and their behavior.


thin film, PVD, CVD, epitaxial thin film, film formation mechanism, nucleation, crystal growth, driving forces, crystal growth speed, phase diagram, crystal defects

Competencies that will be developed

Specialist skills Intercultural skills Communication skills Critical thinking skills Practical and/or problem-solving skills

Class flow

In the first half, students will learn the basics of the thin film deposition in English. In the latter half, students will learn the single crystal growth in Japanese. Exercise problems will be given.

Course schedule/Required learning

  Course schedule Required learning
Class 1 General Introduction: sample shape, vacuum science and technology Students have to explain the fundamental of vacuum technology
Class 2 PVD processes (I): vacuum pumps and systems, physics and chemistry of evaporation, evaporation hardware and techniques. Students have to explain the vacuum chamber and vacuum system.
Class 3 PVD processes (II): glow discharges and plasmas, sputtering processes, sputtering hardware and techniques. Students have to explain the PVD method, plasma and sputtering.
Class 4 CVD processes (I): reaction types, thermodynamics of CVD, gas transport, growth kinetics. Students have to explain the CVD method, gas transportation and kinetics of thin film growth.
Class 5 CVD processes (II) & solution based methods: CVD processes and systems, solution-based methods. Film formation and structure (I): capillarity theory, atomistic nucleation processes (1). Students have to explain the CVD apparatus and nucleation.
Class 6 Film formation and structure (II): atomistic nucleation processes (2), cluster coalescence and depletion, grain structure of films. Epitaxial film growth: structural aspects, lattice misfit and imperfections, growth methods. Students have to explain the epitaxial thin film and perfection of thin film crystal.
Class 7 Characterization of films: Film thickness, Composition, Crystal structure and Chemical bond Students have to explain the characterization method of film.
Class 8 Introduction to single crystal growth: single crystals and applications, Single crystal growth method 1 Students have to explain the single crystals and their applications.
Class 9 Introduction to single crystal growth: Single crystal growth method 2 Students have to explain the manufacturing methods of the single crystals.
Class 10 Crystal growth theory I: Single crystal, driving force of crystal growth, nucleation Students have to explain the driving force of the crystal growth and the nucleation.
Class 11 Crystal growth theory II: growth rate of single crystal, Students have to explain the growth rate of single crystal.
Class 12 Crystal growth theory III: mechanism of crystal growth, equilibrium form, growth form Students have to explain the mechanisms of the single crystal growth.
Class 13 Crystal growth and phase diagram: kinds of phase diagram and growth methods Students have to design the single crystal growth method base on the phase diagram.
Class 14 Crystal defect : kind of lattice defects, defect and crystal structure, description of defects form Students have to explain the kinds of defects and their notations.

Out-of-Class Study Time (Preparation and Review)

To enhance effective learning, students are encouraged to spend approximately 100 minutes preparing for class and another 100 minutes reviewing class content afterwards (including assignments) for each class.
They should do so by referring to textbooks and other course material.


None required.

Reference books, course materials, etc.

All materials used in class are distributed in class fittingly.
Referencd books,
Kuroda, Kessho ha Ikiteiru, Science-sha (1989)
The Japanese Association for Crystal Growth ed., Hangook of Crystal Growth, Kyoritsu-Shuppan (1995)
Milton Ohring, The Materials Science of Thin Films, Academic Press (2002)
S. Wolf and R.N. Tauber, Silicon processing for the VLSI Era: Vol.1-Process Technology, Lattice Press (1999)

Assessment criteria and methods

Students’ course scores are based on final exams, exercise problems, and reports.

Related courses

  • MAT.C206 : Ceramic Processing

Prerequisites (i.e., required knowledge, skills, courses, etc.)

No prerequisites are necessary.

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