In the fields like opto-electronic engineering including, waveguides or displays, optical properties and function of materials, the knowledge of basic principles of optics is indispensable. In concrete terms, this course will start with the review of Maxwell’s equations, will use wave equation to describe the basic properties of light, and Fresnel equations to describe the phenomena of refraction and reflection. As examples of applications of these phenomena, the course will introduce optical fibers, waveguides and near-field optics. Furthermore, polarization state of light, polarizers and wave-retarders will be explained. After introducing the principles of interference examples of its applications in interferometers, multiple-beam interference, antireflection coatings and interference filters will be presented. Based on the explanation of the diffraction principle and Fraunhofer diffraction on a slit and a pinhole, resolution in optical instruments will be explained, and diffraction grating and monochromator will be introduced. Finally, Einstein's coefficients of absorption and emission, and the phenomena of spontaneous and stimulated emission will be used to introduce the principle and applications of laser. The course will be given entirely in English.
This course will be based on the basic knowledge of electromagnetism, and will use this knowledge to cover the foundations of optics, including characteristics of light, refraction, polarization, interference and diffraction, with the aim of gaining thorough understanding of the optical phenomena. Furthermore, with the aid of demonstration experiments students will develop their abilities of observation of a phenomenon, formulation of a problem and of problem solving.
The knowledge of the basic principles of optics is indispensable in the fields of optical properties and optical functionality of materials, in material characterization and in opto-electronic and communication devices. While the core of the course will be classical linear optics, it will also involve principles of lasers and other recent topics of modern optics.
Character of light, propagation of light, polarization, interference, diffraction, principle of laser
|Intercultural skills||Communication skills||Specialist skills||Critical thinking skills||Practical and/or problem-solving skills|
The first 20 minutes of each class will be used to review the contents of the previous class and to explain solutions of exercise problems. In the beginning of the lecture itself, demonstration experiments will be often carried out, and the lecture will proceed with analysis of the observations of the phenomena from the experiment. Students are required to understand the contents of each class and review it for the next class.
|Course schedule||Required learning|
|Class 1||Basic character of light, Maxwell’s equations, light as electromagnetic waves, electric dipole radiation||Maxwell’s equations|
|Class 2||Electromagnetic spectrum, energy of light, pressure of light, quanta of light, momentum of photons|
|Class 3||Propagation of light, refractive index, dispersion, Lorentz oscillator model|
|Class 4||Rayleigh scattering, Fresnel equations, reflection, refraction|
|Class 5||Total internal reflection, evanescent wave, near-field optics|
|Class 6||Principle of lens, waveguide, optical fiber|
|Class 7||Polarization of light, principle of polarizers, Jones matrix|
|Class 8||Birefringence, polarizers, wave-retarders|
|Class 9||Phenomena related to polarization, Faraday's effect, Kerr's effect|
|Class 10||Principle of interference, coherence of light|
|Class 11||Applications of interference, interferometers, multiple-beam interference, anti-reflection coating, interference filters|
|Class 12||Basics of diffraction, Fraunhofer diffraction on a slit and a pinhole|
|Class 13||Resolution of optical instruments, diffraction grating, principle of monochromator|
|Class 14||Einstein's coefficients of absorption and emission, spontaneous and stimulated emission|
|Class 15||Principle and applications of laser|
Handout text will be provided for the first class
E. Hecht: Optics (Addison Wesley)
Understanding of contents of the lecture and the ability to use it will be evaluated. Final exam 90%, short tests and homeworks 10%.
course taught in English