This course aims at obtaining knowledge and basic skills about the discipline called ergonomics/human factors, their approaches and their applications to actual design of human-machine systems, work and organisations. Among various human factors and functions that ergonomics try to solve, this class focuses on cognitive aspects of human attitudes, behaviours and actions, and explores applications of their ergonomic approaches, methods and techniques to actual design and evaluation of human-machine systems and organisational issues. Contents covered in this class are largely divided into three areas, for which some case studies are included: (1) Introduction to ergonomics, (2) Human-machine interaction and usability, (3) Organisational design for safety. In this class, in addition to lectures, some group assignments (+ presentation and discussion) will be made concerning some speci c topics for better understanding of ergonomic concepts and approaches.
By the end of this course, students will be able to:
1. Explain ergonomic thinking, approache, methods/techniques, and their applications to real-world issues, e.g., design of human-machine systems based on human cognitive aspects.
2. Explain basic concepts, approcahes to, and methods and techniques for human error and risk management, and perform their applications to real-world organisational problems.
Human-machin system, user-centred design, usability engineering, human error, risk management, safety culture, and resilience engineering
|Intercultural skills||Communication skills||Specialist skills||Critical thinking skills||Practical and/or problem-solving skills|
In each class, fandamentals of related topics, approaches, methods and techniques will be lectured. Small quiz and discussion related to issues or topics will be performed for their better understandig. In addition, group work will be made twice to enhance students' appication of ergonomic skills and knowledge to their own problems.
|Course schedule||Required learning|
|Class 1||Introduction to Ergonomics (Ergonomic thinking, Purposes, definition and approaches of ergonomics, History of ergonomics, Fields and disciplines related to ergonomics, Roles of ergonomics in modern society)||Understand overviews of ergonomics, its principles and basics.|
|Class 2||Human Factors and Ergonomic Approach (Problem solving steps for ergonomic issues, Data acquisition, data representation and data analysis, Examples of ergonomic problem solving)||Explain the typical methods/approaches and thinking processes used in cognitive ergonomics.ergonomics.|
|Class 3||Basics of Human-Machine Systems (Human-machine systems and interfaces, Human processing systems: Memory systems and visual systems, Task allocation, Relative benefits of machines and humans, Model representing user behaviour: Norman's model, What is “Gulf of Execution/Evaluation”?)||Explain application domains of human-machine sysmtes research and some example cases.|
|Class 4||Design approaches to systems/product development (Definition of User-Centred Design (UCD), UCD processes and key activities (by ISO), Principles ensuring design processes to be user centred, Supporting tools for UCD: Scenario-based design and Cooper's Persona approach)||Explain user-centred design processes and methods included in the processes, roughly.|
|Class 5||Eye-tracking applications to HMI issues (Physiology/Psychology of Human Eyes, History of eye tracking researches, Two types of eye tracking applications: Diagnostic and Interactive applications, Examples of eye tracking applications in HMI)||Explain eye tracking for cognitive task analysis and its applications.|
|Class 6||Basics of Usability (Two definitions of usability (Nielsen and ISO), Nielsen's usability and its attributes, Steps of Usability Engineering, ISO's usability and its attributes, "Small" and "big" usability)||Explain two types of definition of usability and typical methodologies included in usability engineering.|
|Class 7||Evaluation of Usability (Methods for design and evaluation of usability (12 classifications of methods), Criteria for method selection, Prototyping and its dimensions, Example of a rapid and cost effective method (Paper prototyping), New concept in current usability studies (User experience))||Explain practical methods for usability design/evaluation, roughly.|
|Class 8||Presentation of group work (Product having "problematic" characteristics from ergonomic points of view, Questions & Answers)||Gain understandings of the problem identification processes based on ergonomic approach.|
|Class 9||Overview of Safety Management: Applications to Railway Safety (Risk management for track maintenance train operations, Experimental study on train operations, Observations of train operations, HRA (Human Reliability Assessment) approach to railway accident, Cognitive simulation on train operations, Safety culture in railway organisations)||Understand overview of safety management, its princples, approaches and techniques.|
|Class 10||Human Error and Accident (Accident causes in high risk systems, Nature of human erroneous actions: edfinition of human error, coping with human errors, Relationships of human errors with accident (example in railway setting), Approach to accident analysis)||Understand basics of humam errors and their related issues.|
|Class 11||Risk Management (Mechanisms of making accident, Approaches to accident prevention, Foolproof and Fail-safe, Definition of risk, Risk comparisons between various accident causes, Accident causes in high risk systems, Framework of risk management: Error Taxonomy)||Apply basic principles on risk management to actual problems.|
|Class 12||New Approach to Safety Management (Limitations of traditional risk management approach, Trade-off between efficiency and thoroughness, Different perspectives to safety: Safety I vs. Safety II, New approach: Resilience Engineering, Reactive vs. Proactive approach to risk management)||Understand pros and cons of traditional approach of risk management; nature od Safety-I and Safety-II; and principles of Resilience Engineering.|
|Class 13||Safety Culture (Components of "safe" culture (Non-punitive culture, just culture, reporting culture,learning culture, etc.), Definition of safety culture, Differences between culture and climate, Dimensions of safety culture, Purposes of safety culture assessment, Methods for safety culture assessment, Safety culture in healthcare)||Understand safety culture and related issues; and apply safety culture assesment toan actual setting.|
|Class 14||Presentation of group work (Approach to reduction of accidents around you, Discussion)||Gain understanding of safety issues and application skills of the risk management based on group work and discussions.|
|Class 15||occasional date||occasional date|
Itoh, Kenji. Ergonomics in highly advanced and matured society (Kou-do Seijuku Shakai no Ningen-Kougaku), Tokyo: Nikka-Giren, (Japanese)
Instruction manuals and course materials are provided during class.
Students' knowledge of topics in the lecture, and their ability to apply them to groupworks will be assessed. Short quiz/discussion 50%, groupwork 50%.
Full attendance are compulsory.