Radiation is now indispensable in medicine, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases including cancer. Understanding the biological effects of radiation is essential for the safe use of radiation and atomic energy. This course provides a systematic understanding of various biological effects of radiation from cellular and molecular level to tissue and individual level.
(1) Understand various biological effects of radiation and their relationships to radiation dose. (2) Understand the biological meanings and mechanisms of radiation biological effects and biological response to radiation, based on molecular and cellular biology. (3) Understand the principles and practice of diagnostic and therapeutic use of radiation and radiation protection.
Radiation Effects, Radiation Therapy, Radiation Diagnosis, DNA Damage/Repair, Radiation Sensitivity
|✔ Specialist skills||Intercultural skills||Communication skills||Critical thinking skills||Practical and/or problem-solving skills|
Subjects: Class 1-4: First learn the types, properties, quantities and units of radiation and radioactive materials and then learn various radiation effects and their relationships to radiation dose. Finally, discuss actual cases of radiation effects, like nuclear explosions and radioactivity accidents. Class 5-7: For systematic understanding of the biological effects of radiation, learn basic molecular and cellular biology. Class 8-10: First learn the definition of cell death and the quantitative relationship between cell survival and radiation dose with its model. Next learn biological defense mechanisms against radiation-induced DNA damage and underlying molecular mechanisms. Class 11 and 12: Learn various factors which modify the biological effects of radiation. Class 13-15: Learn the principles and practices of diagnostic and therapeutic use of radiation and radiation protection. Finally, introduce cutting edge research to elucidate the mechanisms of the biological effects of radiation. Take-home assignments for preparation and review will be given in each class. There will be several short tests to check understanding.
|Course schedule||Required learning|
|Class 1||Basis for Biological Effects of radiation: Types, Properties, Quantities and Units of Radiation and Radioactive Substances||1. Definition of the quantities and units related to radiation: radioactivity (Bq), absorbed dose (Gy), equivalent dose and effective dose (Sv). 2.Types and properties of radiation and radioactive substances.|
|Class 2||Overview of Biological Effects of Radiation (1): Categorization of Radiation Effects; Acute Effects: Tissue Effects.||1. Categorization of radiation effects (especially deterministic and stochastic effects). 2. Acute radiation syndrome (hematopoietic syndrome, gastro-intestinal syndrome). 3. Tissue effects (reproductive organs, skin, eye).|
|Class 3||Overview of Biological Effects of Radiation (2): Effects on Fetus; Carcinogenesis; Hereditary Effects||1. Effects on fetus (malformation etc.). 2. Carcinogenesis (Atomic bomb, high background area etc. ). 3. Hereditary effects (epidemiology and animal studies). 4. Risk (relative risk and absolute risk).|
|Class 4||Overview of Biological Effects of Radiation (3): Radiation Effects of Atomic Bomb and Nuclear Accident||Discuss radiation effects in atomic bomb and nuclear accidents (Chernobyl, Tokai-mura JCO, Fukushima Daiichi etc.).|
|Class 5||Molecular and Cellular Biology for Radiation Biology and Medicine (1): Cells and Biological Molecules||1. Constituents of living organisms; cell, organelles and biological molecules (DNA, RNA, protein etc.). 2. DNA replication, transcription and translation. 3. Cell cycle.|
|Class 6||Molecular and Cellular Biology for Radiation Biology and Medicine (2): Gene expression and signal transduction.||1. Genotype and phenotype. 2. Spatial and temporal control of gene expression. 3. Intracellular transduction of signals and protein posttranslational modification.|
|Class 7||Molecular and Cellular Biology for Radiation Biology and Medicine (3): Methods for Analysis and Research||1. Methods for the analysis of DNA, RNA and protein. 2. Methods for the analysis of gene/protein function.|
|Class 8||Radiation Effects and Radiation Responses at Molecular and Cellular Level (1): Cell Death; Cell Survival Curve; Recovery||1. Various mode of cell death and definition (reproductive death, mitotic death, interphase death, apoptosis, necrosis). 2. Cell survival curves and models (target-hit model and linear-quadratic (LQ) model). 3. Sublethal damage recovery (SLDR) and potentially lethal damage recovery (PLDR).|
|Class 9||Radiation Effects and Radiation Responses at Molecular and Cellular Level (2): DNA Damage and Repair||1. Types of DNA damages. 2. Repair of DNA damages (especially the repair of DNA double-strand breaks). 3. Radiosensitive syndrome (XP, SCID, AT, NBS etc.).|
|Class 10||Radiation Effects and Radiation Responses at Molecular and Cellular Level (3): Cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis||1. Mechanism and biological significance of cell cycle checkpoints. 2. Mechanism and biological significance of apoptosis.|
|Class 11||Factors Modifying Biological Effects of Radiation (1): Dose Fractionation, Dose Rate; LET; Oxygen||1. Effects of dose fractionation and low dose rate radiation. 2. Linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). 3. Oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and hypoxic cells.|
|Class 12||Factors Modifying Biological Effects of Radiation (2): Radiosensitizers and Radioprotectors||1. Radiosensitizers (hypoxic cell sensitizer, DNA repair enzyme inhibitor etc.). 2. Radioprotectors (radical scavenger etc.)|
|Class 13||Principles and Practices of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Use of Radiation||1. Radiation diagnosis (CT, PET etc.). 2. Radiation therapy (IMRT, particle therapy, brachytherapy etc.)|
|Class 14||Principles and Practices of Radiation Protection||1. International organizations (ICRP, IAEA, UNSCEAR etc.). 2. Justification, Optimization (ALARA) and Dose Limit.|
|Class 15||Introduction to Cutting Edge Research of Radiation Biology and Medicine||Introduce what is going on at the frontier of the research to elucidate the mechanisms of biological effects of radiation.|
No textbook is assigned.
Radiobiology for the Radiologist, seventh edition. E.J. Hall and Amato J. Giaccia Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins
Assignments (40%), Short tests (30%), Report (30%)
No particular prerequisites but recommend to take Radiation Chemistry (CAP.E361).
Associate Professor Yoshihisa MatsumotoOffice: Rm.210, 2nd floor, Ookayama N-1 Building
E-mail: yoshim[at]nr.titech.ac.jp Tel: 03-5734-3703
During 3rd quarter, 10:45-12:15 on Tuesdays and Fridays (after classes). In other periods and weekdays, please make an appointment by e-mail.