By leveraging the basic principles and concepts to understand fluid dynamics that was learned in Introductory Hydraulics, this lecture provides important concept and solutions (equations) to understand flow dynamics in conduit and open channel, which can be can be applied for designing such water infrastructure. On the basis of the laws of conservation of momentum and energy, the first half of this lecture explains fundamental concepts to understand friction and resistance in laminar and turbulent flow, and then the second half introduces the important equations to describe steady flow of conduit, and steady and unsteady flow of open channel.
This lecture aims to deepen the understanding of the basic principles and fundamental phenomenon of water flow, and to understand the dymanic and complex flow dynamics. Such understanding will help students obtain a foundation of design techniques required for flood control, water use, and environmental management.
By the end of this course, students will be able to:
1. Expalin principles and mathmatical frameworks of friction, resistance, and energy loss in laminar and turbulence flow.
2. Apply fundamental concepts and principles in fluid dynamics to various hydraulic phenomena in conduit and open channel.
3. Expalin physical mechanisms and one demesional mathmatical framework of fluid dynamics in the conduit and open channel.
Laminar and turbulent flow, friction and resistance, energy loss, uniform flow, steady flow of conduit, gradually varied flow of open channel, unsteady flow of open channel
✔ Specialist skills | Intercultural skills | Communication skills | Critical thinking skills | ✔ Practical and/or problem-solving skills |
Students are required to work on exercises and report about key topics covered in the lecture, and expected to do preparation and review for each class.
Course schedule | Required learning | |
---|---|---|
Class 1 | Guidance Hydraulics and water-related infrastructure, the relationship between the Hydraulic I and Hydrological Experiment | Understand water-related infrastructure and the role of hydraulics in water environment management, and the relationship between Hydraulics I and hydrological experiment |
Class 2 | Laminar flow and turbulent flow (1) Reynolds number, laminar flow | Review conservation laws and understand the flow of the viscous fluid with Reynolds number (Textbook Chapter 5) |
Class 3 | Laminar flow and turbulent flow (2) Turbulence, Reynolds stress | Understand the characteristics of the turbulent flow, Reynolds number, Reynolds stress, and Navier- Stokes equation (Textbook Chapter 5) |
Class 4 | Laminar flow and turbulent flow (3) Smooth surface and rough surface, flow velocity distribution | Understand flow velocity distribution of turbulence along a wall using the concept of smooth - rough surface (Textbook Chapter 5) |
Class 5 | Resistance acting on objects in flow Momentum conservation law, energy conservation law | Understand the various types of resistance to work in a fluid by using momentum and energy conservation laws |
Class 6 | Steady flow of the pipe (1) Basic equations, friction loss (laminar flow) | To understand conduit flow using one-dimensional equation, and derive equations for friction loss in laminar flow (Textbook Chapter 9) |
Class 7 | Steady flow of the pipe (2) Friction loss (turbulence), Moody chart | Derive equations for friction losses in turbulent flow of conduit, and understand Moody chart (Textbook Chapter 9) |
Class 8 | Steady flow of the pipe (3) Energy loss other than friction | Understand the energy loss, other than the friction loss, that occurs in conduit (Textbook Chapter 9) |
Class 9 | Intermediate test and review | Check comprehension in the first half of this lecture and review of the contents |
Class 10 | Rapidly varied flow of open channel (1) Specific force, critical depth, energy conservation law | Understand rapidly varied flow of open channel by using specific force, critical depth, energy conservation law (Textbook Chapter 6) |
Class 11 | Rapidly varied flow of open channel (2) Momentum conservation law, hydraulic jump, conjugate depth, energy loss | Understand rapidly varied flow of open channel (especially hydraulic jump) from the viewpoint of conervation of momentum and energy (Textbook Chapter 6) |
Class 12 | Uniform flow of open channel Equations for average flow rate, friction loss, uniform flow depth | Understood uniform flow of open channel by leaning equations for average flow rate, friction loss, and uniform flow depth (Textbook Chapter 7) |
Class 13 | Gradually varied flow of open channel (1) Equations for gradually varied flow | Derive equations for gradually varied flow of open channel (Textbook Chapter 8) |
Class 14 | Gradually varied flow of open channel (2) Major surface type of open channel (steep and gentle slopes) | Derive equations for describing open channel water surface profile in steep and low-gradient (Textbook Chapter 8) |
Class 15 | Unsteady flow of open channel Momentum equation, continuity equation, wave of open channel, bore | Understood unsteady flow (wave and bore) using conservation laws and continuous equation (Textbook Chapter 10) |
Hino Mikio, Hydraulics "Meikai Suirigaku", Maruzen (1983/01), ISBN-13: 978-4621027783 (Japanese)
Ikeda Shunsuke, Hydraulics "Shoujutu Suirigaku", Gihodo (1999/01), ISBN-13: 978-4765515993 (Japanese)
Attendance 10%, reports 10%, exercise 30% , final exam 50%
Students must have successfully completed Introductory Hydraulics or have equivalent knowledge.