Geochemistry is a research field which tries to discover fundamental principles and laws that control the distribution of elements, isotopes, and chemical species in the solar system and the earth. In addition to fundamental researches, geochemistry is intimately related to applications such as space exploration and resource survey. Consequently, geochemistry has been developed significantly in the last 100 years of its history, becoming extremely important in earth and planetary sciences. This course consists of basic and application classes regarding geochemistry and cosmochemistry, specifically focusing on the origin and evolution of the solar system. The fundamentals for elements and isotopes will be given in the first six classes, followed by the classes introducing the applications utilizing such tracers for elucidating the origin and evolution of the solar system.
At the end of this course, students will be able to understand:
1) the origin of elements and the solar system
2) the timescale for the evolution of early solar system and early earth
3) chemical and isotopic distribution in the solar system and within the planets
Elements, Isotopes, Meteorites, Early solar system, Early earth, Chronology
|Intercultural skills||Communication skills||Specialist skills||Critical thinking skills||Practical and/or problem-solving skills|
Before coming to class, students should read the course schedule and prepare for the topics with handouts and references.
|Course schedule||Required learning|
|Class 1||Elements and isotopes||Review the fundamentals of elements and isotopes|
|Class 2||Radioactivity||Understanding of radioactivity|
|Class 3||Chronology||Understanding of various chronometers|
|Class 4||Mass fractionation of stable isotopes||Understanding of mass dependent isotope fractionation|
|Class 5||Meteoritics||Understanding of meteorites and their chemical components|
|Class 6||Origin of elements||Understanding of stellar nucleosynthesis of elements|
|Class 7||Early Solar System||Understanding of building materials of the Solar System|
|Class 8||Formation and chemical evolution of planetesimals||Formation theory of planetesimals and observations of asteroids|
|Class 9||Proto-planets and snowlines||Condensation of volatiles and observations of outer Solar System|
|Class 10||Formation of the Solar System and meteorites||Understanding of formation of the Solar System based on meteorites|
|Class 11||Gas giants and giant impacts||Understanding of formation of gas giants and subsequent giant impacts|
|Class 12||Formation of the Moon||Understanding of formation of the Moon based on lunar samples|
|Class 13||Magma ocean and the origin of the atmosphere and ocean||Formation of magma ocean and differentiation of planets|
|Class 14||Evolution of the atmosphere and oceans||Understanding of chemical evolution on planetary surfaces|
|Class 15||Habitability and Solar System explorations||Chemical evolution and habitability on Mars and icy moons|
Handouts will be provided during the class
Kenji Notsu "Cosmochemistry and Geochemistry" Asakurashoten (in Japanese)
Mitsuru Ebihara "Chemistry of the solar system" Shokabo (in Japanese)
Jun'ich Matsuda, Hisayoshi Yurimoto "Cosmochemistry and Planetary chemistry" Baihukan (in Japanese)
Students will be assessed on their understanding of the origin and evolution of the solar system and early earth, including their timescales.
Students' course scores are based on final exam (65%) and reports (35%).