The minimum elements of matter which can be observed are hadrons and leptons. Hadrons are particles interacting with strong forces, such as proton and pion, and are composed of quarks and gluons. Owing to the color confinement phenomenon, quarks and gluons are confined in the hadrons and are never observed directly. Most of the visible mass in our universe is due to the hadron mass. In the lecture, properties of hadrons are explained in both theoretical and experimental points of view. In the descriptions of the hadron structure and dynamics, symmetries play important roles. Basics of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), which is the fundamental theory of the dynamics of quarks and gluons, are also explained. The nature of the coupling constant of the strong interaction, that is called as asymptotic freedom, is the outstanding feature of QCD, and the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry is responsible for the mass generation of quarks. Effective models based on chiral symmetry for hadron physics are also introduced.
The purpose of the course is to let the students understand hadrons which constitute the present universe, and to understand quarks, gluons, and QCD which is the theory of strong interaction. Another purpose is to let the students know theoretical tools to study hadron physics.
[Objectives] Students will understand the basics of hadron physics by taking this course. Students will understand the features of strong interaction, the description of hadrons based on quarks, and features of quantum chromodynamics.
[Topics] Strong interaction, symmetries in hadron physics, properties of hadron, quark model, quark flavors, quark generations, color charge, gluons, asymptotic freedom, elastic scattering and deep inelastic scattering, chiral effective theories, chiral symmetry, current algebra, hadron mass generation, etc.
strong interaction, quark model, flavor symmetry, chiral symmetry, baryons, mesons, color charge, gluons, quantum chromodynamics, asymptotic freedom, origin of mass, dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry, chiral effective theories.
|✔ 専門力||教養力||コミュニケーション力||展開力(探究力又は設定力)||✔ 展開力(実践力又は解決力)|
The lecture is given using slides with prints summarizing each topic.
Practical problems are given and students are required to solve them.
|第1回||Hadrons and strong interaction||Explain what hadrons are.|
|第2回||Relativistic quantum mechanics||To be able to describe spin 1/2 fermion in relativistic form|
|第3回||Symmetries in hadron physics||Explain the breaking patterns of symmetries in hadron physics.|
|第4回||Flavors of quarks, classification of baryons and mesons||Explain the compositions of baryons and mesons based on flavor symmetry.|
|第5回||Quark model||Construct the proton wavefunction based on the quark model.|
|第6回||Structure of nucleon: form factor||To be able to explain elastic scattering based on non-relativistic and relativistic theory, and the form factors.|
|第7回||Structure of nucleon: structure function||To be able to explain the meaning of Bjorken scaling.|
|第8回||Basics of Quantum Chromodynamics||To be able to understand the meaning of asymptotic freedom.|
|第9回||Symmetry and conservation law||Drive the Noether current from a Lagangian.|
|第10回||Current algebra and PCAC||Explain what PCAC is.|
|第11回||Chiral Symmetry||Derive the Gell-Mann Oakes Renner relation.|
|第12回||Linear sigma model||Demonstrate the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in a hadron theory|
|第13回||Fermion mass generation||Explain the mechanism of quark mass generation.|
|第14回||Nambu-Goldstone theorem in QCD||Explain the basic ideas of chiral perturbation theory.|
'Particles and Nuclei', B. Povh et al., Springer,
'Elementary Particle Physics, volume 1 and 2', Y. Nagashima, WILEY-VCH,
'Quarks, Baryons and Chiral Symmetry', A. Hosaka and H. Toki, World Scientific,
'Gauge Field Theories, an introduction with applications', Mike Guidry, WILEY-VCH
Quizzes and problems given during the classes. The quizzes are given in the response sheet given in the end of each class. The problems are written in handouts distributed at each class.
It is required that the students have enough knowledge on quantum physics.
The lecture will be given in English.